Wednesday, May 20, 2020

Why Are Leadership Skills Necessary In Multi Nationals Today - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 10 Words: 2960 Downloads: 5 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Public Relations Essay Type Analytical essay Did you like this example? Abstract: With the introduction of globalization, there has been a drastic change in the corporate sector. With more competition in this area, it is seen that new companies are jumping in the arena ad resigning plans, strategies and methods in order to gain a status and identity in this corporate world. In doing this, the multinational organizations need to look in to various aspects and one of this is the personal and professional skills of the leaders. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Why Are Leadership Skills Necessary In Multi Nationals Today" essay for you Create order It was sensed that leadership skills are an important component among the rest that drives multinational organizations towards success (Arvey, R.D., Rotundo, M., Johnson, W., Zhang, Z., McGue, M. (2006). Pp 1-20). Thus, importance of leadership skills has increased in the past some years and has also made a rapid speed development. This development has been possible due to the different regulations and also the governance has played a very important role in bringing up this global business, trading and also the different investments schemes. (Arvey, R.D., Rotundo, M., et al(2006).pp1-20). Due to globalization today companies especially the private ones have been able to make huge profits and not only that but also have made recognition in the market for themselves. Today leadership has gained lot of importance and is a very necessary component today that gets the workers motivated today and helps the workers to do even better than they ever did (Bass, B.M. Bass, R.(2008). pp 5). Th is has also given the companies a huge competitive advantage and they are able to face their competitors today without much hassle. That is one of the main reasons why MNCs look for leaders so that helps them to do better and also have an edge over their competitors companies (Burns, J. M. (1998) .pp 76). . This research study has laid importance and has also focused in understanding the various skills that a leader of an organization needs so that he is able to work well in the global scenario and there is a need to understand as to how exactly globalization creates an influence on the leadership skills (Foti, R. J., Hauenstein, N. M. A. (2007).,pp 347-355). Introduction of this research: It is seen that they strive to achieve success in the rat race of the corporate world, multinational organizations strive hard to stand rooted in the market. This ensures a lot of competition on the part of the multinational organizations (George J.M. (2000), pp.1027-1055). This ensures that multinational companies devote lots of effort in ore to ensure that all the aspects of the organization is up to date and ready to match the strict competition in the market. Owing to this, multinational organizations also work hard and find out the means that ensure that they become part of the globalization process and thus are able to establish itself as a brand name and an important player in the corporate world (Lord , R.G ., De Vader , C.L ., Alliger , G.M . (1996 . pp . 402-410). MNCs are seeing progress daily and it is due to the understanding that they have towards human resource and the keep in mind various aspects when they appoint managers today who are able to apply leadership ski lls at the global level.(Burns, J. M. (1978)pp76).  In Today companies do not just appoint leaders but they also see to it that they are trained and also developed well and this is one of the main criterias that companies have today. For this reason companies take up different practices that make their leaders developed and even efficient enough so that they do not just lead a team but also are prepared to take the responsibility that comes in at global level so that they are better off than the others (Gershenoff, A. G., Foti, R. J.(2003). Pp 170 196). These kinds of leadership qualities are understood by everyone well and especially the management consultants, Human resource managers and also other members feel the need to understand it so that they can easily fit in the context that is offered at global level (Lord , R.G ., De Vader , C.L ., Alliger , G.M . (1996 . pp . 402-410). Leadership at global level makes the companies understand the state that exist at the curre nt level and even helps companies to face the reality that is there today so that corporations are prepared and that is how they can also get their employees well prepared and also understand the scenario (Kouzes, J., and Posner, B.(2007) pp 98). . Research aims The main aim of this research is to check and investigate as to what exactly global leadership is and what is the role that it plays in MNCs. This research work intends to study the multinational organizations and investigate on the important components that helps to establish a niche in the corporate world (Lord , R.G ., De Vader , C.L ., Alliger , G.M . (1996 . pp . 402-410). The main aim of the research work is thus to study the internal structure and work flow of multinational organizations and find out the role that global leadership skills play in establishing the multinational organization (Mann, R.D.(1999). pp 241-270). Studying the multinational organizations and finding out the role played by global leaders in helping achieve success is the primary aim of this research work. Research Objectives The various research objectives that are outlines that aid this research work are given below: Study the competition that exists at global level in todays multinational organization. Identify the basic areas in multinational organizations that demand improvement and innovation Study the global skills that are required by multinational organizations to manage the employees. Identify the advantages of having an effective leader in multinational organizations Study of the various training that are conducted by multinational organizations in order to aid the managers of a multinational organization to manage the tem. Demonstrate an understanding of the various skills set which makes leaders a success globally. Demonstrate the leadership skills that are required by leaders to manage a diverse workforce in multinational organizations. Study of the strategies and techniques that leaders follow to manage teams effectively in multinational organizations If the obj ectives and the aims want to be satisfied then they have to be analyzed and there should also be a proper research carried out on the problem that pertains so that a depth study is taken up and it helps to get the review of the topic (Lord , R.G ., De Vader , C.L ., Alliger , G.M . (1996 . pp . 402-410). The literature study that will be done on the topic will also help to get the required idea as to what the topic offers and will help to get a solution to their problems also that leaders tend to put up with. Literature review: The increasing strict competition in the corporate world has sensitized multinational companies to ensure that the internal structure, work flow and most importantly the leadership skills of the managers and top executives (Mumford , M. D. , Zaccaro , S. J ., Harding , F. D. , Jacobs , T. O ., Fleishman, E.A (2000) .,pp 11 35). Thus for selecting individuals with effective leadership skills, the leaders and also the HR managers have to play an important role. While recruiting leaders, the HR management department needs to ensure that the managers have effective leadership skills (Smith, J.A., Foti R.J.(1998). pp147-160). Core leadership and various other capabilities which organizations tend to have helps them to get the influence over the various global markets and also derives a long term accomplishment for them (Stogdill, R.M. (1998). Pp 35-71). Leadership is said to be that strategic tool which helps firms to acquire and also to sustain a position for then even if there is h uge competition today. HR managers need to know the various leadership traits so they are not short of them when they actually need it and that is something that is expected from them. (Kickul, J., Neuman, G(2000).pp27-51)Leaders that are aware of these components find it easy to create facilities to words and can also plan many actions in order to articulate them and also fulfill the exact purpose that their organization has. Many managers and also candidates which are trained so that they adopt leadership skills and it helps them to facilitate skills and build them and get it personalized and also interpret their core values (Mumford , M. D. , Zaccaro , S. J ., Harding , F. D. , Jacobs , T. O ., Fleishman, E.A (2000) .,pp 11 35). Leaders should have the ability by which they can strengthen their multicultural teams and also give them an idea of how they have to work in networked environment. Leaders have to be able to solve conflict also that arise between parties and they s hould also do everything creatively so that the clients get satisfied. These leaders are like stewards for personal resources so they have to interact and learn everything that comes their way. (Zaccaro , S. J ., Gulick , L.M.V . Khare , V.P.(2008) pp . 13-29) Leaders also have to develop new ways of thinking, attitudes, behaviors and even the competencies at times when a change occurs in the companys strategies (Smith, J.A., Foti, R.J. (1998) pp 147-160). Leaders should also help in different levels and should also be very socially skilled and most importantly they need to know the culture and even the norms when they work at the global level. It is difficult to understand different cultures of various countries, but leaders that operate at the global level need to get an experience because it is crucial for their company so that it can operate at all levels (Mumford , M. D. , Zaccaro , S. J ., Harding , F. D. , Jacobs , T. O ., Fleishman, E.A (2000) .,pp 11 35). Today a com panys main need cited is to hire leaders that are said to be highly developed and they are the ones which help companies to get a place for them in this kind of market scenario. Good leaders are those who have skills and also the qualities and that are what help the workers that are there in the company. (Smith, J.A., Foti R.J.(1998) pp147-160).Leaders even need to have idea of the productive ways and that is important that they are prepared with aspects so they can help the one that needs them. These skills make leaders to help the others get comfortable since they have to work daily in the same scenario and it also makes them sustained in the global world that is there today (Mumford , M. D. , Zaccaro , S. J ., Harding , F. D. , Jacobs , T. O ., Fleishman, E.A (2000) .,pp 11 35). It helps others as well as the leaders by moving them forward in the career that is there globally. With productive strategies leaders are able to balance various backgrounds and they also acquire i deas by which they can influence others and also get the work done on time (Mumford , M. D. , Zaccaro , S. J ., Harding , F. D. , Jacobs , T. O ., Fleishman, E.A (2000) .,pp 11 35). Even when there is urgency at the work it can be looked into by leaders and he also has to manage the negotiations well so that the main purpose is solved and also the challenges and the responsibilities are set. Companies should understand why they are important for them since they are the ones which help the organization to get successful. It also creates influence since they get advantage over competitors also. (Stogdill, R.M.(1948).pp35-71). Research methodology: In this section the various techniques will be explained and also undertaken that will help to meet the objectives that companies have and will also see to it that their goals are met. (Magnusson, D. (1995). pp. 219-247)An understanding level will be drawn by the research methods so that relevant data will be gathered and also the data will be analyzed well so that the research design will also get known. In order to complete the research, various methods will be used. Out of these, the two types used in this research work are given below: Case Study: it is seen that in order to study the leadership skills in global leaders in multinational organization, this method will prove to be very useful (Zaccaro , S. J ., Gulick , L.M.V . Khare , V.P.(2008) pp . 13-29). This is because using this method, a few multinational organizations or geographical location can be selected on which the research can be carried out). As the research topic is a vast one, it will be seen that the th rough the case study method the area of research can be limited and also can be ensured that the data collected is authentic(Smith, J.A., Foti, R.J. (1998) pp 147-160. Qualitative research: This approach encourages the research to get in to the why and how of the research aims and objectives. This research is based more on academic lines and tries to question and understand the human behavior. Through various case studied and study of the various situations, this method of research is fruitful(Lord , R.G ., De Vader , C.L ., Alliger , G.M . (1996 . pp . 402-410). Various theories of leadership will be taken into account in order to collect data using the qualitative research method. Quantitative research methods: This research method uses the various first hand or primary sources of data collections. Using these methods, the research needs to visit the places and get in touch with eh respondents and then collect information. Collection of Data: Primary collection of data Usually primary data gives the first idea of the study and also gives a background that is needed which is confirmed with relevant sources so that study gets even easier (Zaccaro , S. J ., Gulick , L.M.V . Khare , V.P.(2008) pp . 13-29). The data is said to be easy but is not used for this research because there is a need for only the secondary data with which the study will be concluded. Secondary collection of data Secondary research cannot be said as first hand review but is the one that gathers secondary data and background information that is needed. (Mumford, M. D., Zaccaro, S. J., Harding, et al(2000) pp11-35). It will give different outlook to whole study so that it gets more interesting and will be understood also in depth. It will also consider the present scenario by accessing different books and even blogs where the information tends to be loaded (Lord , R.G ., De Vader , C.L ., Alliger , G.M . (1996 . pp . 402-410). Focus also will be there on subject so that its background can be provided. Role of Ethics This research topic is such that ethics plays an important role in that. While interviewing respondents and managers of multinational organization in order to find out about the leadership skills and techniques used by them, the research may get hold of information that is important for the organization and confidential too (Zaccaro , S. J ., Gulick , L.M.V . Khare , V.P.(2008) pp . 13-29). In such cases, the research has to abide by the standards of ethics. The research needs to ensure that this confidential information is not leaked out. In addition to that, while questioning the leaders about their leadership skills, the researcher needs to ensure that he ors he does not need up asking questions that are too personal or confidential. In addition to that, rules of ethics also need to be kept in mind while collection and analysis of data (Gershenoff , A. G ., Foti , R. J . (2003) . pp170 196). The researcher should not be caused towards the multinational organizations and th e skills that leaders require. This is important to ensure that the data collected and the research done is authentic and bias free. The research needs to remain important and abide by the rules of ethics while conducting the research, colleting data, analyzing and interpreting it as well as while presenting it and putting forth the conclusion (Lord , R.G ., De Vader , C.L ., Alliger , G.M . (1996 . pp . 402-410). Limitations faced while doing study for the topic: There will tend to be limitations which will have to be faced when the secondary data will be used to collect information since there is hardly any information that tends to be accessible easily. Even sites on the internet are very cautious today and do not let everyone scan the data. Secondary data should be collected soon as there can be some drawbacks such as the matter is irrelevant or accuracy is a problem. (Gershenoff , A. G ., Foti , R. J . (2003) . pp170 196). It always cant meet the requirements that is the aim and also the objective for which the study is undertaken. Due to the topic being a study on global scenario the information will not be accessed easily. Conclusion This research work deals with the study the global skills that are required by multinational organizations to manage the employees. In addition to that, through this research work it is intended that a study of the strategies and techniques that leaders follow to manage teams effectively in multinational organizations will be conducted. This will also lead to the study of the competition that exists at global level and also highlight the various training that are conducted by multination organizations in order to aid the managers of a multinational organization to manage the team. Through this research work, it is also intended to be studied about the aspects in multinational organizations that demand improvement and innovation. This also leads to the identification of the advantages of having an effective leader in multinational organizations. Though this research work, the primary aim that is intended to be highlighted is the fact that various skills required by leaders to manage a diverse workforce in multinational organizations.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Civilization Of The Egyptians - 1464 Words

The civilization of the Egyptians was accomplished by its surroundings. The Nile always flooded among the spring time every year. The flood would leave tons of fertile silt. The Sahara Desert also surrounded Egypt, but with the Nile it was a great place to live in. With it Egypt grew a lot of manpower and acquired a surplus to trade and to devote to other matters. Nature had also created a vast fortress wall that protected them from hostile neighbors. They all spoke a common language and shared religious beliefs. They made a palette for the gods that was two feet and it told the unification of Egypt. Narmer was the first one to unify Egypt and it was kept that way for 3,000 years. They had a belief that their pharaoh would be resurrected in another world and made huge tombs for them with necessities inside with their dead body. There are nine eras of Egyptian history, they are called: Predynastic early Dynastic, Old Kingdoms, First Intermediate Period, New Kingdoms, Late Period, and Ptolemaic Period. One Egyptians ruler, named Khufu, created the largest tombs and pyramids. This earned the Pyramid age nickname for the Old Kingdom, First Intermediate Period New Kingdom, Late Period, and Ptolemaic Period. One Egyptian ruler, named Khufu, created the largest kingdom. Hisson Khafra made the famous Sphinx, it’s face looked like a lion and was a man. Menkauru was also going to make a huge pyramid, but died in his twenty eight term leaving it incomplete. The next dynastyShow MoreRelatedEgyptian Civilization And The Egyptian Empire1614 Words   |  7 Pagesempress. Throughout time, different empires and civilizations arose and fell. Some of them started small and then grew bigger, others arose after a long fall, but all had the dream of gaining more power by expansion and leaving a legacy behind. 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It is believed that the ancient Egyptian civilization, based in eastern North Africa, started around 3150 B.C., and survived until 31 B.C. In this ancient civilization, art was considered to be magical. Whether in the form of painting, sculpture, carving or script, art held the power to maintain universal order and grant immortal life by appealing to various gods to act on behalf of people, both in life and inRead MoreThe Ancient Egyptian Civilization1692 Words   |  7 Pages The ancient Egyptian civilization is one of the oldest civilizations in the world. Over a period of three thousand years many kingdoms and dynasties came into power and many died away into oblivion. One thing that kept Egyptian’s works and memories alive were the scriptures they wrote. Today, from these scriptures written on the wall (or on papyrus) have helped Egyptologists to uncover the secrets and the lives of the ancient Egyptians. A major understanding we have from these scriptures and other

Where to Find Informative Explanatory Essay Topics

Where to Find Informative Explanatory Essay Topics It would be useful if it's something which you are most passionate about so you may write in great information. Just examine the window and select any topic you enjoy. The following provides some ideas of what topics you may want to use, along with a few specifics about how you should write the job. Next, you will make a content map. The standard of your topic will find out the grading of the paper. Come and have a look to create your essays stick out from the rest. Certain informative essay issues need a lengthy period to finish a last paper. Students who find it tough to compose an informative essay after reviewing examples and ideas from experts don't need to panic. A speech might appear interesting in the start, but after writing a few essays, it seems that there's nothing to chat about anymore. Enable the professional academic writers help to your informative paper! After you've chosen one subject from the reach of expository essay topics, it's time to get started writing. When writing an explanatory essay, it's excellent to adhere to the rubric so that you're in a position to capture all of the info required, thus increasing the probability of the writer achieving maximum points. The 5-Minute Rule for Informative Explanatory Essay Topics Your essay might incorporate the factors for teen pregnancy and talk about the recent rates of teen pregnancy and potential solutions. This list of speech topics represents a wide selection of issues in the nation and in the world. Great topics for speech on sociological questions may lead to positive outcome and self-education. There are lots of topics readily available today which form a terrific foundation for the upcoming informative essay. The War Against Informative Explanatory Essay Topics You need to select a topic that it is simple to find details about. In case the topic isn't assigned, you'll need to select your own topic. It's possible t o write about nearly every topic you enjoy. Choosing good informative essay topics is simple if you understand how to go about doing it. The Importance of Informative Explanatory Essay Topics Though an excellent essay cannot be written without a plan, the outline shouldn't be too large. The conclusion of essay, that is the previous part, should become your opportunity to create your readers understand the entire point of your topic. Examining each side of the issue can assist your readers form their own opinions. Unlike in the majority of other varieties of essay, you don't will need to earn a point or prove your opinion on the subject-matter is accurate. A biology speech could explore a number of the human carrying capacity numbers which were advanced by different biologists. In an academic setting, but the paper needs to be formatted and organized in line with the corresponding standards without the usage of informal languages like slang or jargon. Informative essays don 't have one particular direction, meaning that you'll have the ability to choose a topic based on your interests and class requirements. The length and necessities of your essay are especially essential in understanding how you should structure the job. The cost of an essay rides on the quantity of effort the writer has to exert. There's no need to waste a whole lot of money on custom writing. When you get a well-formulated topic, it's a half success of your final writing. You should have the ability to thoroughly cover the subject in the quantity of time you're given. Even simple personal opinion may be the top theme. There are several topics to talk about and such a brief period to prepare your speech. You won't have the ability to fully grasp how to compose an informative essay without a very clear comprehension of its outline and structure. For instance, if it's only a very simple essay then you might just need to incorporate an introduction, a body section, and a con clusion. The Ultimate Informative Explanatory Essay Topics Trick Put simply, everything would be contingent on verifiable fact an expository essay. The term can be categorized on several different bases. A superb approach may be to concentrate on a subject of local interest, like a lake or waterway that the audience will know about. At the same instance your sentences want to be flow smoothly from the very first to the next point for each paragraph. Introducing Informative Explanatory Essay Topics Read on to find out more about how to construct an informative essay, in addition to examples of informative essays to aid you in getting started. You've got to compose an informative essay. Essentially, informative essay is about explaining a topic with good detail. An informative essay isn't the exact same as an explanation essay. The Rise of Informative Explanatory Essay Topics Do not be concerned, EssayPro is here in order to teach our students everything they will need to le arn about crafting an informative essay! Therefore, if you would like to have nontrivial expository essay topic that necessitates thorough research, choose something which refers to a technological region of study. For instance, it can distract students. Informational Writing Prompts to assist Students Learn About the World Around Us A journal isn't only a safe spot for a student to reflect on her or his ideas and feelingsit may also be a potent tool that permits the student to find out more about what's going on in the world around us. The Most Popular Informative Explanatory Essay Topics A strong introduction must also capture the readers' interest. It isn't enough to describe a particular topic a student should serve as an authority in the chosen field by supplying specific examples and educating the audience on the given problem. Someone reading the title should identify issues that'll be covered. You might, for instance, discuss advertising or parental influence.

Thursday, April 23, 2020

The Importance Of Animal Testing Essays - HIVAIDS, Lentiviruses

The Importance of Animal Testing Research on animals is important in understanding diseases and developing ways to prevent them. The polio vaccine, kidney transplants, and heart surgery techniques have all been developed with the help of animal research. Through increased efforts by the scientific community, effective treatments for diabetes, diphtheria, and other diseases have been developed with animal testing. Animal research has brought a dramatic progress into medicine. With the help of animal research, smallpox has been wiped out worldwide. Micro-surgery to reattach hearts, lungs, and other transplants are all possible because of animal research. Since the turn of the century, animal research has helped increase our life-span by nearly 28 years. And now, animal research is leading to dramatic progress against AIDS and Alzheimer's disease. Working with animals in research is necessary. Scientists need to test medical treatments for effectiveness and test new drugs for safety before beginning human testing. Small animals, usually rats, are used to determine the possible side effects of new drugs. After animal tests have proven the safety of new drugs, patients asked to participate in further studies can be assured that they may fare better, and will not do worse than if they were given standard treatment or no treatment. New surgical techniques first must be carefully developed and tested in living, breathing, whole organ systems with pulmonary and circulatory systems much like ours. The doctors who perform today's delicate cardiac, ear, eye, pulmonary and brain surgeries, as well as doctors in training, must develop the necessary skills before patients' lives are entrusted to their care. Neither computer models, cell cultures, nor artificial substances can simulate flesh, muscle, blood, and organs like the ones in live animals. There is no alternative to animal research. Living systems are complex. The nervous system, blood and brain chemistry, and gland secretions are all interrelated. It is impossible to explore, explain or predict the course of many diseases or the effects of many treatments without observing and testing the entire living system. Cell and tissue cultures, often suggested as "alternatives" to using animals, have been used in medical research for many years. But these are only isolated tests. And isolated tests will yield only isolated results, which may bear little relation to a whole living system. Scientists do not yet know enough about living systems or diseases, nor does the technology exist, to replicate one on a computer. The information required to build a true computer model in the future will be based on data drawn from today's animal studies. Primates represent only about 1/3 of 1 percent of animals in research. But during the last half century, research using primates has led to major medical breakthroughs, most notably in the treatment of polio and Rh disease. Vaccines have reduced the cases of polio in the U.S. from 58,000 to one or two a year at present. Scientists are learning how the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) works by studying its non-human primate counterpart, the Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) in monkeys. The SIV model is useful in testing drugs for AIDS. In addition, the HIV virus survives in certain kinds of monkeys and although it does not kill the animals, it can be removed from them. This may prove useful in testing an AIDS vaccine. Researchers are studying rhesus macaque monkeys to explore ways to reduce multiple organ failure following hypotensive shock, a loss of blood pressure due to loss of blood. Researchers have hypothesized that damage to the organs occur within the first few minutes after blood flow is reestablished, when a certain kind of white blood cell attaches to walls of blood vessels and releases toxic substances. The researchers reasoned that if, just before blood flow is reestablished, a substance that prevents the white blood cells from attaching to the vessel walls were injected into the blood stream, it might prevent the release of their toxic contents and avoid multiple organ damage. It is expected that this new technique will prove effective in human patients. Researchers are studying obesity in monkeys in hopes of finding a way to control body weight. Scientist are also using monkeys to study Taurine deficiency, which causes vision problems, and zinc deficiency, which causes growth retardation among infants and fetuses. Researchers are

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Elder Abuse Essays

Elder Abuse Essays Elder Abuse Essay Elder Abuse Essay Question 1 What is elder abuse? The International Network for the Prevention of Abuse of Older People (INPEA) and the World Health Organisation (WHO) define Elder Abuse as: a single, or repeated act, or lack of appropriate action, occurring within any relationship where there is an expectation of trust which causes harm or distress t an older person. Abuse of older people can be of various forms such as physical, psychological/emotional, sexual and financial. It also reflects intentional or unintentional neglect. (ACT Government Community Services, June 2012) Question 2 List five types of abuse. Give a brief description of each of elder abuse and an example of signs that could indicate abuse is occurring. Forms of Abuse of Older People: Physical Abuse: the infliction of pain or injury. This can include hitting, pushing, punching, kicking, biting, scratching, shaking, slapping, dragging, burning, inappropriately restraining or confining, inappropriately medicat ing, and damage to property. Psychological Abuse: inflicting mental anguish through actions that cause fear of violence, isolation or deprivation, and feelings of shame and powerlessness. It may nclude verbal intimidation, humiliation or embarrassment, shouting, bullying, threats of physical harm, threats of institutionalisation, withdrawal of affection (e. g. refusing access to grandchildren), emotional blackmail, damage to, or removal of property and possessions, removal of decision-making powers, or preventing access to services. Sexual Abuse: unwanted sexual behaviour including rape, indecent assault, sexual harassment or inappropriate touching. Financial Abuse: the illegal or improper use of an older persons finances or property. It may include stealing, misappropriating money, forcing changes to a will or other egal documents, denying access to personal funds, forging signatures or misusing Power of Attorney. Neglect: the failure of a carer to provide the necessities of life to a person for whom they are caring. Neglect can be intentional or unintentional. Intentional neglect is when an older person is abandoned or not provided with adequate food, clothing, shelter, medical or dental care, or where their spiritual needs are not met. It also includes improper use of medication, poor hygiene or personal care, or the refusal to allow other people to provide adequate care. Unintentional neglect occurs when a ay not be aware of the types of support available, or may be ill and unable to meet the persons needs. Social Abuse: preventing a person from having contact with friends or family, or access to social activities. It includes intrusion, isolation, and preventing independence using threats, manipulation and control. (Advocare 2012) Signs that would indicate that abuse is occurring would be: Physical Behavioural Showing signs of being afraid of a particular person/people Appearing worried and/or anxious for no obvious reason Becoming irritable or easily upset Appearing depressed or withdrawn Losing interest Sleep disturbances Changed eating habits Having thoughts of suicide Frequent shaking, trembling and/or crying attacks Rigid posture Presenting as helpless, hopeless or sad Making contradictory statements not resulting from mental confusion Reluctance or hesitation to talk openly, waiting for the carer to answer Avoiding physical, eye or verbal contact with carer or service provider. Psychological Abuse The person may be huddled when sitting and nervous with the family members or carer nearby Insomnia, sleep deprivation and loss of interest in self or environment Fearfulness, helplessness, passivity, apathy, resignation, withdrawal Sexual Abuse It can be very difficult to identify, as embarrassment and shame may prevent the subject from being raised. Medical or nursing staff should examine the genital areas for bruising, bleeding, and painful areas. Check for torn, stained or blood stained underwear. Look for evidence of sexually transmitted disease. Watch for difficulty in walking or sitting. Any of these signs may be indicative of sexual abuse. Financial Abuse This is the improper use of a persons money, property, or assets by someone else. Money can be a very sensitive subject. Gear of not having enough money for future care, or feeling obligated to others can leave a person vulnerable. These feelings can be reinforced and used as a threat. Material or financial abuse may be more easily detected when clients are visited in their own homes. Neglect This is where a person is deprived by the carer, or the carer is unable to provide the necessities of life. If food or drinks are being withheld, there is malnutrition, weight constipation or faecal impaction Isolation, lack of mental, physical, social or cultural contact Inadequate supervision, the person is abandoned/unattended for long eriods or locked in the house with any supervision There may be evidence of inadequate or inappropriate use of medication, for instance, the person may be over- sedated in the middle of the day There may be evidence of unmet physical needs such as decaying teeth or overgrown nails The person may be lacking necessary aids such as spectacles, dentures, hearing aids or walking frame Clothing may be poor hygiene or inadequate skin care. The victim may be very dirty, smell strongly or urine or be infested with lice. There may be a urine rash with abrasions and chafing Hypothermia, recent colds, bronchitis or pneumonia Department of Human Services September 1997) Question 3 Who is vulnerable to abuse? Abuse of older people crosses gender, social-economic, relig ious and cultural boundaries. Abuse is more likely to be inflicted by family members, especially an older persons adult children. Older people are at increased risk of abuse when they: Have a disability or poor health; Are in dependent caring relationships, particularly where a carer is experiencing carer burden or carer stress; Are isolated and/or without personal supports Have a past history of violence or conflict within the family Exhibit particularly ifficult and/or inappropriate behaviour, and/or confusion or memory loss; or Exhibit signs and symptoms of dementia. Question 4 What reporting mechanisms/systems are in place in residential care to address elder abuse? Recent amendments to the Aged Care Act 1997 (the Act) are designed to increase safeguards for residents of Aged Care homes. The Act requires approved Aged Care providers to report allegations or suspicions of unlawful sexual contact, or unreasonable use of force on a resident of an Australian Government subsidised Aged Care home. From 1 July 2007 Aged Care providers must have systems and protocols in place that nable compulsory reporting of such incidents. If the approved provider receives an allegation of, or starts to suspect on reasonable grounds that unreasonable use of force or unlawful sexual contact on a resident has taken place, they must report the allegation or suspicion as soon as reasonably practicable and within 24 hours to the Police and the Department via the Aged Care Complaints Scheme. They must also provide protections for staff who report abuse. (Aged Rights Advocacy Service 2012) Question 5. are no mandatory reporting laws for elder abuse anywhere in Australia. As from 1 July 2007 Compulsory Reporting of certain assaults, inflected on a recipient of residential care was imposed on providers of Australian Government subsidised Aged Care homes. Amendments to the Aged Care Act 1997 (the Act) are designed to Aged Care providers to report unlawful sexual contact or unreasonable use of force on a resident of an Australian Government subsidised Aged Care home. (Aged Care Act 1997) Question 6 Who is primarily responsible for services relating to abuse of the older person in the wider community? List the range of responses Elder Abuse and the Law Mandatory Reporting There are no mandatory reporting laws for elder abuse anywhere in Australia. As from the 1st July 2007 Compulsory Reporting of certain assaults, inflicted on a recipient of residential care was imposed on providers of Australian Government subsidised Aged Care homes. Amendments to the Aged Care Act 1997 (the Act) are designed to increase safeguards for residents of Aged Care homes. The Act requires approved Aged Care providers to report unlawful sexual contact or unreasonable use of force on a resident of an Australian Government subsidised Aged Care home. Suggested interventions include: Crisis care Provision of community support services Provision of respite care Counselling Alternative accommodation Legal interventions including police involvement, restraining orders, and applications for guardianship and financial management. At this time the evidence in support of mandatory reporting is not convincing. The consensus of government reports and researchers has been to oppose the introduction of mandatory reporting. Workers and agencies are encouraged to seek advice from specialist services whenever required (e. g. Aged Care Assessment Teams, legal services, Police, mental ealth services, sexual assault services). All agencies that provide services to older people have the following roles in responding to the abuse of older people: Refer suspected, disclosed or established cases of abuse to appropriate services Identify possible abuse of older people (Australian Society for Geriatric Medicine Position Statement No. 1 Elder Abuse) Are older people with Dementia at higher risk of elder abuse? Support your answer Older people with dementia are more likely to be abused than those who are cognitively intact. This may be related to increased dependence on carers or to a ower likelihood of seeking help. Mistreatment occurs when C6s (referred to hereafter as care givers) cause harm to persons with dementia (referred to hereafter as care recipients (CRs) through their actions or failure to act. Risk factors can be characteristics of the CR, the CG, their relationship, and the environment. These formed the design of the current study. Some CG factors associated with mistreatment of CR include poor health, social isolation, and mental health problems such as depressive symptoms and anxiety. The CGS perception of caregiving burden has been associated with multiple types of abuse. Similarly, being a spouse CG, duration of caregiving, and a shared living arrangement have been associated with mistreatment. A poor pre-morbid relationship was associated with CG physical aggression, whereas a good pre-morbid relationship and the use of formal services were associated with lower likelihood of mistreatment. CR factors significantly related to elder abuse included poor functional status and more-severe cognitive impairment. Several studies have associated CR behavioural problems with mistreatment, and CR physical aggression specifically with physical abuse. (Wiglesworth A, Mosqueda L et al Journal of American Geriatric oc. 2010) Question 8 List the key strategies for prevention/early intervention of Elder Abuse. Key strategies for preventing abuse include: Encouraging and supporting older people to stay active and socially connected Ensuring that older people have access to independent information and advice prior to making decisions about financial and housing matters Educating older people to assert their rights and gain support where necessary Facilitating older peoples use of powers of attorney and guardianship which can enable them to plan for and have choice over who will have control over their affairs f they lose capacity in the future Educating professionals to identify and respond to abuse Community care agencies and workers have an important role to play in implementing these strategies. Strategies to provide easier access to information and advice through helplines and specialised abuse services can be effective. Queensland, Victoria and the ACT have implemented helplines with positive feedback from a Queensland evaluation (Procopis 2007). The Victorian, WA and ACT Governmen ts have developed state wide policy frameworks addressing the abuse of older people. The Victorian Governments Elder Abuse Prevention Strategy, for example, includes a financial literacy program, an education and training package for professionals, specialist legal and advocacy services and community education (Office of Senior Victorians 2009). Page Research to Practice Briefing 3 February 2010 REFERENCES ACT Government Community Services, June 2012, ACT Elder Abuse Program Policy, viewed 30 May, 2013 http://ACT (ACT Elder Abuse Program Policy). Advocare viewed 30 May 2013: Advocare. org. au 2012. Aged Care Act 1997, Australian Government Department of Health Ageing 4 May, 2013. Aged Rights Advocacy Service (ARAS) 2012, viewed 24/5/13. viewed Australian Society for Geriatric Medicine Position Statement No. 1 Elder Abuse Department of Human Services Southern Metropolitan Region, (Dealing with Elder Abuse September 1997). Government Community Services, June 2012, Government Community Services, June Government Practice Guidelines for Health Services and Community Agencies for the Prevention of Elder Abuse viewed 30/5/13. ervices and community agencies Wiglesworth A, Mosqueda L, Mulnard R, Liao S, Gibbs L, Fitzgerald W. Screening for Abuse and Neglect of People with Dementia Viewed 4 June, 2013, http:// Medscape. com/v iewpublication 2010 (American Geriatric Soc. 2010. ) PART B case study Your grandmother lives in an aged care facility and overall seems happy with the care that she receives. However, recently the staff seems to be very busy and do not attend to her toileting needs. When you speak to the staff they are too busy to attend for some time. Your grandmother finds this very distressing. You are her representative and she has indicated that she wants you to intervene on her behalf. What rights does your grandmother have? My grandmother has the right o full and effective use of her personal, civil, legal and consumer rights to quality care appropriate to her needs to have full information about her own state of health and about available treatments neglect to live without discrimination or victimisation, and without being obliged to feel grateful to those providing her care and accommodation to personal privacy to live in a safe, secure and homelike environment, and to move freely both within and outside the residential care service without undue restriction to be treated and accepted as an individual, and to have her individual preferences taken into account nd treated with respect to continue her cultural and religious practices, and to keep the language of her choice, without discrimination to select and maintain social and personal relationships with anyone else without fear, criticism or restriction to freedom of speech to maintain her personal independence to accept personal responsibility for h er own actions and choices, even though these may involve an element of risk, because she has the right to accept the risk and not to have the risk used as a ground for preventing or restricting her actions and choices to maintain control over, and to continue making decisions about, the ersonal aspects of her daily life, financial affairs and possessions to be involved in the activities, associations and friendships of her choice, both within and outside the residential care service to have access to services and activities available generally in the community to be consulted on, and to choose to have input into, decisions about the living arrangements of the residential care service to have access to information about her rights, care, accommodation and any other information that relates to her personally to complain and to take action to resolve disputes o have access to advocates and other avenues of redress to be free from reprisal, or a well-founded fear of reprisal, in any fo rm for taking action to enforce her rights. (User Rights Principles 1997) Question 2 What is the Act that protects residents against abuse in Aged Care Facilities? The Charter of Residents Rights and Responsibilities under the Aged Care Act 1997 explicitly states that people living in aged care homes have the right to be treated with dignity and respect, and to live without exploitation, abuse or neglect. A process for reporting allegations of suspicions of physical assault and unlawful exual contact to the Victorian Department of Health was established in 2007. The reporting is consistent with accountability principles that underpin funding to all Victorian public health services. All Public Sector Residential Aged Care Services (PSRACS) must notify the department of these reports, at the same time or within 24 hours of advising the Scheme, Victoria Police and residents family. Question 3 How can you advocate on behalf of your grandmother? Outline your approach. If I did feel a complaint was warranted I would bring it up to a staff member that I was comfortable dealing with. If this was a serious complaint I would take it up with the homes administration. If I was uncertain I would ask, talk it over, perhaps have a chat to someone that I trusted who was not emotionally involved to get a clear picture of my grandmothers situation and another opinion. Approach staff- Talk to the staff finger at tired or uneducated nursing staff. A phrase that has a negotiatory tone is much more likely to get the response required. It should be put in the l sense such as Im concerned that such as such is happening. Talk to management- If no action is taken talk to the next person up the ladder. Use your support person to record events from a less emotional position. Using a back up person also shows you are less likely to back off. Record events- Start taking notes of the situation including the sequence of events and any relevant dates, names and staff responses. Nursing homes should have a complaints process in place, dont wait too long to lodge a complaint. Making an official complaint- If things are still unsatisfactory, it is now time to use the official complaints mechanism of the organisation or aged care system. This is where having kept a record is imperative. A well documented difficulty nd the sequence of events is much more likely to be corrected than one that is hazy. (Aged Carer) I would be sure that my Grandmother was kept informed that everyone was working on the complaint and giving her status reports. Your grandmother asked you to advocate on her behalf. What type of advocate would you be? Advocacy is about someones life. The aim would be to keep the focus of any discussion on my grandmother. Something that might be a good idea for one person, might not be a good idea for another. I would need to discuss with the residential care home my grandmothers individual needs and expectations. I would represent my grandmother who I was advocating for what she values and her communication, temperament, methods and style, what brings on a smile, etc. I would avoid avid direct confrontation and go for a win/win situation. Question 5 What outside agencies would you approach on behalf of your grandmother if your complaint is not dealt with effectively? I could contact the Public Sector Residential Aged Care Services (PSRACS) and I could report to the Commonwealth Government and Victoria Police (this would have to be done within 24 hours of the incident). I would need to record my contact details; including my email address and telephone umber so that the Victorian Department of Health could contact me immediately if and to make complaints about health service providers. The Health Services Commissioner (HSC) is an independent statutory authority established to receive and resolve complaints about health service providers. The HSC also handles complaints about disclosure of health information and access to health information and ageing. Aged Carer viewed 3 June, 2013 agedcarer. com. au Australian Government Department of Health Ageing Charter of Residents Rights Responsibilities 1997. Schedule 1 of the User Rights Principles 1997

Sunday, March 1, 2020

Tiempo máximo de estancia permitido en Estados Unidos

Tiempo mximo de estancia permitido en Estados Unidos Para evitar problemas migratorios muy serios es necesario saber y respetar el tiempo mximo de estancia legal permitido en Estados Unidos. En realidad, el monto de la estadà ­a legal depende de varios factores, como por ejemplo, tipo de visa. En este artà ­culo se informa sobre la cantidad de tiempo que un extranjero con visa de no inmigrante puede quedarse legalmente en Estados Unidos, segà ºn los casos –turista, estudiante, intercambio, trabajo o inversià ³n–. Tambià ©n se informa sobre lo que se conoce como periodo de gracia  y cà ³mo afecta a la estadà ­a legal la extensià ³n o los cambios de visa realizados desde dentro de Estados Unidos. Por supuesto, los extranjeros con una tarjeta de residencia pueden permanecer en el paà ­s el tiempo que quieran. Es ms, estn obligados a vivir en el paà ­s y sà ³lo pueden ausentarse para viajar a otro por tiempo limitado. Tiempo que turistas pueden quedarse legalmente en EE.UU. Para el caso de los turistas hay respuestas diferentes segà ºn el documento que se ha utilizado para ingresar al paà ­s. Adems surge la duda sobre si conviene agotar el tiempo permitido o es ms aconsejable salir antes.   Un primer caso es el de los turistas que ingresan a Estados Unidos sin visa. Los ciudadanos de 38 paà ­ses pueden ingresar a los Estados Unidos sin visa, si lo hacen como turistas o para un asunto de negocios. Si llegan por avià ³n o barco necesitan solicitar antes una autorizacià ³n electrà ³nica que se conoce como ESTA. Para las personas que estn en esta situacià ³n el tiempo mximo de estadà ­a es de 90 dà ­as. No hay excepcià ³n. Tampoco es posible pedir una extensià ³n. Asimismo tampoco funciona salirse a un paà ­s fronterizo, como Canad o Mà ©xico, con la idea de ganar otros 90 dà ­as.   Si se sale a uno de esos paà ­ses, se reingresa con el mismo periodo de tiempo que ya se tenà ­a, sin que se inicie otro nuevo y si ya est agotado el oficial del paso migratorio puede denegar la entrada por considerar que se est jugando con los là ­mites legales de estancia. Un segundo caso es el de los turistas que ingresan a Estados Unidos con una visa lser, tambià ©n conocida como tarjeta de cruce. Pueden tenerla los mexicanos o los ciudadanos de otros paà ­ses que residen legalmente junto a la frontera entre Mà ©xico y Estados Unidos. Las lser tienen sus propias reglas para solicitarlas, millas que se puede ingresar en el paà ­s y tiempo de estadà ­a.  Como norma general, con la visa lser sà ³lo se puede permanecer en Estados Unidos un mximo de 30 dà ­as. Si se desea ingresar por ms tiempo solicitar el permiso I-94 en el paso fronterizo. Por à ºltimo, est el caso de los turistas que ingresan a Estados Unidos con visa de turista, tambià ©n conocida en algunos paà ­ses como de placer o de paseo o como B2 o la combinada B1/B2. El tiempo mximo de estadà ­a lo fija el oficial de la CBP en el puesto fronterizo terrestre, puerto o aeropuerto.   Aunque es muy comà ºn que se permita el ingreso por 180 dà ­as, eso no es siempre asà ­ y puede ser por mucho menos. Este dato hay que tenerlo claro. Y si no se sabe, consultar el registro de ingreso y salida en la pgina de la CBP. Asimismo, no se debe confundir jams el tiempo de autorizacià ³n para permanecer legalmente en Estados Unidos con la fecha de expiracià ³n de la visa, ya que son dos cosas muy distintas.   Conveniencia de quedarse en EEUU todo el tiempo autorizado Frecuentemente los turistas se plantean si es buena idea permanecer en Estados Unidos hasta agotar el plazo legal de estancia. Lamentablemente, a esa pregunta no hay una respuesta à ºnica, ya que va a depender del caso de cada uno. Lo importante es que el oficial de inmigracià ³n en el punto de ingreso a los Estados Unidos no tenga ninguna razà ³n para sospechar que la estancia en el paà ­s ha sido o va a ser por motivos distintos al turismo. Hay que evitar dar la impresià ³n de que se estn desarrollando actividades no permitidas con la visa, como por ejemplo estudiar, trabajar o, simplemente, residir. Antes de quedarse ms tiempo del permitido es necesario saber las consecuencias, ya que pueden ser muy serias. Asimismo, conviene saber con quà © frecuencia se puede ingresar al paà ­s para evitar ser parado por las autoridades migratorias y ser regresado al paà ­s de origen. Cunto tiempo se puede permanecer en USA con la visa J-1 Las visas J-1 de intercambio comprenden una gran variedad de programas. La regla general para las personas que tienen estas visas es que se pueden ingresar a Estados Unidos un mximo de 30 dà ­as antes de iniciar el programa y se pueden quedar durante la duracià ³n regular del mismo, que est seà ±alado en el DS 2019.   Una vez que se termina se tienen 30 dà ­as de periodo de gracia para dejar Estados Unidos. Durante ese mes se puede viajar, si asà ­ se desea, pero no se puede seguir participando en ninguna actividad relacionada con el programa.   Estas reglas aplican tambià ©n a los familiares de las personas con visas J-1 y que estn en USA como dependientes. Tiempo de permanencia visas F-1 y M-1 de estudiante Con cualquiera de estas dos visas de estudiante se puede ingresar a Estados Unidos un mximo de 30 dà ­as antes al comienzo del programa. Sin embargo siguen reglas distintas para el periodo de gracia. Los titulares de visas M-1 deben salir del paà ­s en un mximo de 30 dà ­as desde la finalizacià ³n regular del programa mientras que los de la F-1 tienen un mximo de 60 dà ­as desde la fecha de finalizacià ³n regular del programa. Tiempo de permanencia para los titulares de visas H En esta categorà ­a entran las H-1B para profesionales y modelos, las H-2A para agricultura, las H-2B para trabajos temporeros no agrà ­colas, las H-3 para formacià ³n profesional y las H-4 para familiares de los titulares de otras visa H y que estn en Estados Unidos como acompaà ±antes. Todas estas personas pueden ingresar a Estados Unidos un mximo de 10 dà ­as antes de comenzar su trabajo y el periodo de gracia para permanecer en el paà ­s una vez que se acaba el trabajo es de 10 dà ­as. Incrementar el tiempo que se puede permanecer legalmente Si se ha ingresado con una visa no inmigrante es posible solicitar una extensià ³n de la estadà ­a o un cambio a otro tipo de visa no inmigrante, como por ejemplo, un turista pasarse a estudiante.   Si la fecha de la estancia autorizada llega a su fin antes que la aprobacià ³n de la extensià ³n se considera que no hay problema siempre y cuando la peticià ³n se hubiera realizado de buena fe.   Si se ha ingresado con visa, se ha pedido extensià ³n y no es aprobada, entonces con carcter general se conceden 30 dà ­as para salir de Estados Unidos. Los dà ­as se cuentan a partir de la fecha que aparece en la carta en la que se notifica la denegacià ³n. Pero hay que tener en cuenta que cada caso es un mundo, y que en la carta se puede notificar un periodo ms corto, que es el que habrà ­a que respetar. Sin embargo, un caso muy distinto al anterior es el de las personas que ingresaron sin visa como turistas o para hacer negocios por pertenecer a los paà ­ses del Visa Waiver Program. Estos extranjeros no pueden bajo ninguna circunstancia extender la estadà ­a ni solicitar ningà ºn tipo de visa mientras estn presentes en Estados Unidos. Si bien en casos muy concretos podrà ­an quedarse mediante un ajuste de estatus como por ejemplo en los casos de matrimonio con ciudadano y cumpliendo todos los requisitos. Pero son casos muy delicados y es siempre aconsejable asesorarse con un buen abogado de inmigracià ³n.  Finalmente,  en algunos casos muy especà ­ficos es posible pedir una restauracià ³n de estatus que es lo que se conoce por la expresià ³n del latà ­n nunc pro tunc. A tener en cuenta cuando se est en un periodo de gracia Hay que pensarlo dos veces antes de salir de USA y volver a ingresar, ya que puede suceder que no se permita el regreso. Quà © sucede cuando se sobrepasatiempo mximo de estancia Quedarse ms tiempo del permitido tiene importantes consecuencias migratorias que conviene no ignorar, asà ­ sea por sà ³lo un dà ­a el exceso. Lo primero, es que la persona se coloca en situacià ³n de indocumentada y, por lo tanto, puede ser detenida y dependiendo de las circunstancias de cada caso, puede ser expulsada o deportada. En algunos casos puede ser posible arreglar los papeles, pero en otros la situacià ³n de indocumentado cierra esa posibilidad por lo que antes de hacerlo conviene informarse bien con un abogado de migracià ³n reputado. Adems, la visa serà ­a revocada ya que es una de las causas de cancelacià ³n de la visa. En el caso de haber ingresado como turista sin visa por ser de un paà ­s del Programa de Exencià ³n de visados, se pierde ese privilegio. Finalmente, es posible incurrir en el castigo de los 3 y de los 10 aà ±os que podrà ­a complicar enormemente el regreso a Estados Unidos. Puntos clave Los turistas sin visa pueden permanecer 90 dà ­as, sin cambios ni extensià ³nLos turistas con visa B2, generalmente 180 dà ­as, pero verificar con el I-94Los estudiantes con visa F-1 y derivadas: 60 dà ­as desde fin de programaEstudiantes con visa M-1 y derivadas: 30 dà ­as desde fin de programaPrograma de intercambio J-1 y derivadas: 30 dà ­as desde el fin del programaVisas de trabajo H y derivadas: cuanto antes, mximo 10 dà ­as desde fin de trabajo Este es un artà ­culo informativo. No es asesorà ­a para ningà ºn caso concreto.

Thursday, February 13, 2020

Poetry books Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Poetry books - Essay Example The â€Å"Short Charter of Christ† employs a number of imageries which centrally focus on the development of the grand-imagery of crucified Christ. This imagery of the crucified body of Christ further conveys a holistic abstraction of Christ’s physical sufferings in exchange for the salvation of humanity. On the contrary, the image of the charter visualizes this grand metaphor through the triadic relationship among â€Å"signs†, â€Å"interpreters† and â€Å"ideas† which those signs are intended to convey to the audiences or readers. The scribe of this image has effectively employed a number of signs of physical sufferings such as five wounds, the nails, the â€Å"scourges of his attackers†, stains of blood, bones and skulls, etc. to conjure up Christ’s sufferings and to convey his pains to the readers. Through these symbols, he has attempted to visualize spatiotemporal settings of Jesus’ crucifixion in the mage, while the poem uses various imageries develop the traditional Christian concepts of humankind’s salvation and liberation through Christ’s suffering on the Holy Cross. Indeed, during the medieval period, it was a literary tradition of referring to Christ’s Last Will in Manuscripts. But some of the charters of Christ had been produced in the form of legal documents. In these charters, the scribes would make sincere effort to convey a sense of legality of the documents to the readers. Therefore, the scribes had to apply a number of techniques in this regard. These techniques include literary-visual binary techniques of presentation of the theme. While presenting the theme of the documents they would attempt to instill the spatiotemporal dimension of their subject matter. Necessarily, they had to assume the persona of Christ in their manuscripts. While Christ’s persona was worked out through linguistic strategy of using the first person perspective in the presentation of th e literary content, images were used to illustrate and visualize Christ’s figure. These pictorial presentations of Christ would more or less commonly uphold him in the posture of delivering sermon to his disciples. In this regard, it can be said that the pictorial presentation of Christ’s persona in the â€Å"Short Charter of Christ† is somewhat different from this tradition. Instead, the scribe of the â€Å"Short Charter† has adapted and elaborated the image of crucified Christ to visualize the theme of the poem. The â€Å"Short Charter of Christ†, had been written as a legal document in which Christ grants humankind the liberation and redemption from sins. This charter has a root in the medieval practice of writing religious documents in parchments. More specifically, this is the imitation of Christ’s Last Will and Testament. In order to work out the spatiotemporal dimension of Christ’s physical sufferings, the scribe has endeavored to convey the sense of Christ’s physical sufferings through the images of the cross, crucified Christ and other elements needed in the process of crucifixion. These symbols and images of crucified Christ nailed on the cross are sufficient enough to work out the realities which Christ himself faced. But in order to validate the legal dimension of the texts, those medieval script-writers would manipulate the imagery of Christ’s skin extended to serve as a parchment on which Christ’